In 1963, the now-deposed Shah of Iran initiated the ‘White Revolution’, intended to transform the country from a feudal society into a modern economic and industrial power. One consequence was the abandonment of ancient ‘landlord villages’, the ancient walled settlements that were once characteristic of the Tehran plain and that date back to the early Islamic period, although their precise origins remain largely conjectural.


This article is an extract from the full article published in World Archaeology Issue 38. Click here to subscribe

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